The Agreement between Vietnam and Japan for an Economic Partnership (VJEPA) was signed on December 25th, 2008 and came into force on October 1st, 2009. This is the very first bilateral FTA of Vietnam, in which both Vietnam and Japan give the other more preferences than that agreed under the Agreement for Comprehensive Economic Partnership ASEAN – Japan (AJCEP). However, VJEPA does not replace AJCEP. These two FTAs coexist and enterprises can choose to use the more favorable one.
When Chancellor Angela Merkel touches down in Washington today, she will face the new reality of U.S.-EU economic cooperation in the Trump era.