Case Studies

  • Inter-Agency Policy Co-ordination in Botswana

    Botswana is a founding member of the WTO; it joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1987 and opened its mission in Geneva in 2001. The mission also serves other Geneva-based UN and specialized agencies. The Ministry of Trade and Industry is responsible for foreign trade policy formulation and implementation, negotiations on bilateral agreements, licensing and regulation of domestic trade and regulation, and monitoring of domestic consumer issues. Within the Ministry, the Department of International Trade is responsible for foreign trade policy, including co-ordination of WTO negotiations.

  • Services Commitments: Case Studies from Belize and Costa Rica

    Belize and Costa Rica made modest commitments in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) at the Uruguay Round and the Fourth (Telecommunications) and Fifth (Finance) protocols negotiated thereafter in 1997. Costa Rica’s commitments reflect status quo bindings of market liberalization, Belize’s commitments reflect less than that. This is not surprising: most developing countries used the provisions of GATS to commit a few sectors at levels which were already open and to the extent allowed by their domestic policy contexts.

  • Thailand: Conciliating a Dispute on Tuna Exports to the EC

    This case study illustrates the manner in which Thailand raised the issue and challenged the EC tariff within the framework of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) provided for in the WTO Agreement.

  • The Reform of South Africa’s Anti-Dumping Regime

    This case study examines the development and reform of South Africa’s anti-dumping regime as an example of a country’s participation in the WTO. The long history of the use of trade remedies by South Africa illustrates the fact that developing countries can successfully participate in the global trading system. By using the WTO’s Anti-dumping Agreement (ADA) as a model for its own anti-dumping system, South Africa also serves as an example of how a country can make use of WTO instruments to ensure that its domestic legislation is complying with its international obligations.

  • Pakistan: The Consequences of a Change in the EC Rice Regime

    In the recent past Pakistan has faced trade restrictions on its super basmati because of recent changes in the EU rice trade regime, resulting in the withdrawal of a duty abatement of € 250 a tonne, an import duty derogation earlier allowed against normal duty of € 264. This study, in the context of the WTO regime on agriculture, examines the need for and aims of such a restriction, and also its possible implications for various stakeholders, including farmers, processors, traders and of course the overall national economy.