• Maintaining WTO discipline: Procedural guidelines versus economic substance in GATT/WTO safeguards

    WTO rules for safeguards have helped individual WTO Members to discipline domestic protectionist interests and to advance a generally liberal trade policy stance. This constructive use of safeguards and other trade remedies has been more effectively supported by the parts of the rules that deal with procedure (e.g., participation of interested parties) than by those parts that attempt to specify the circumstances in which an import restriction is permitted (e.g., serious injury to a domestic industry that results from imports). The chapter advances these points by describing how Latin American reformers used safeguards and anti-dumping as part of the liberalizations they have put in place in recent decades.

  • Domestic policies, hidden protection and the GATT/WTO

    As tariff barriers have fallen worldwide, regulation of domestic policy has become increasingly important in international trade agreements. This has led to the emergence of a theoretical literature addressing the integration of perfectly observable domestic policy into trade agreements. However, the assumption that domestic policy is perfectly observable is problematic since the interpretation and enforcement of domestic policy statutes is often non-transparent.

  • Emerging economies, trade policy, and macroeconomic shocks

    This paper estimates the impact of macroeconomic shocks on the trade policies of thirteen major emerging economies over 1989-2010; by 2010, these WTO member countries collectively accounted for 21 percent of world merchandise imports and 22 percent of world GDP.

  • Is it appropriate that the WTO permit states to impose anti-dumping measures?

    These three kinds of measures are regulated by the Anti-dumping Agreement. According to the WTO provisions, dumping is not forbidden, but the WTO members have a right to take measures to protect their domestic industry from the harmful effects of dumping. While the countries of the world want trade enhancement at the global level, why do they apply anti-dumping measures, and is the approach of the WTO to this issu e appropriate?

  • Paving the way for unfair competition: the imposition of EU anti-dumping duties on ceramic tiles from China

    The report identifies concerns with the EU anti-dumping instrument, as applied today, regardless of the fact that the investigation procedures and methods might be in line with the current regulation and practice. The report’s arguments are based on the recent anti-dumping investigation – and imposition of anti-dumping measures – on imports of ceramic tiles from China, but the observations and conclusions from the analysis are valid for most EU anti-dumping investigations. The report observes that price dumping is evaluated differently depending on whether the product is manufactured in the EU or imported from third countries.