• Summarizing WTO appellate body decision on U.S. flavored tobacco ban

    On September 2, 2011, a panel report ruling against the U.S. ban on flavored cigarettes (which are often used to hook teenagers) was circulated to World Trade Organization (WTO) members after Indonesia successfully challenged the measure. In nearly 200 rulings over 16 years, this was the first time that the WTO ever found a violation under this article, which has long been of concern to consumer advocates.

  • The WTO tuna-dolphin ii case: United States — measures concerning the importation, marketing and sale of tuna and tuna products

    The case United States — Measures Concerning the Importation and Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products concerns whether United States “dolphin-safe” labeling requirements comply with the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This paper analyzes the WTO Appellate Body decision and its systemic importance for the interpretation of the TBT Agreement’s substantive obligations; the types of labeling that fall within the scope of the Agreement; the legitimacy of labeling based on foreign process and production methods (PPMs); and the relation of other international law to WTO law.

  • Public and Private Participation in Agricultural Negotiations: The Experience of Venezuela

    The significant changes experienced by Venezuela in recent years have had an important impact on the structure and the position it has adopted in trade negotiations, especially in agricultural negotiations. These changes can be classified in three major areas: political, constitutional and institutional.

  • Vanuatu’s Suspended Accession Bid: Second Thoughts?

    Vanuatu began its WTO accession process in July 1995, and the main momentum towards membership came in 1997 with the advent of a structural adjustment package known as the Comprehensive Reform Programme (CRP).

  • Uruguay in the Services Negotiations: Strategy and Challenges

    Uruguay is a small South American country lying between Brazil and Argentina. In relation to the rest of the continent, it is a small country with a land surface of approximately 176,000 sq km; it is also small in demographic terms — its population is only 3 million — and in economic terms — gross domestic product (GDP) in 1998 was around US$23 billion